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Leo Frank and the Murder of Little Mary Phagan

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Leo Frank and the Murder of Little Mary Phagan

Published January 10, 2010

August 17, 2015, Update: A superb rendition of The Murder of Little Mary Phagan -- that was originally written and published in the late 1980s by Mary Phagan-Kean -- has been orally transformed in 2015 by Margaret Huffstickler and published in audiobook format on the centennial of Leo Frank's lynching in August of 2015.

Please visit the link below and listen to the audiobook version of the book The Murder of Little Mary Phagan:

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CENTENNIAL REVIEW (Published on April 26, 2013): The Murder of Little Mary Phagan was written by Mary Phagan-Kean (Born: Friday, June 5, 1953) and published by New Horizon Press (September 15, 1989).

The Murder of Little Mary Phagan by Mary Phagan-Kean is an exceptionally insightful semi-autobiographical sketch detailing a fascinating journey exploring one of the most infamous and sensational criminal cases in the annals of early twentieth-century Southern legal history. This book provides an intimate view of the Frank-Phagan case from the adult grandniece of the teenage victim "Little" Mary Anne Phagan, the tragic child laborer who was murdered one hundred years ago on April 26, 1913, in Atlanta, Georgia.

The Apocryphal Deconstructed: An Anti-Gentile Hate Crime Hoax Finally Debunked

This true crime monograph is generally regarded as the most even-handed book about the Frank-Phagan affair (1913-1915) and its contentious aftermath (1915-1986). It also reveals facts and evidence concerning the case found in no other books. Most importantly, Phagan-Kean dispels one of the central anti-Christian, anti-Southern, and anti-Gentile conspiracy theories perpetuated by the Jewish community about the Frank-Phagan case -- the apocryphal hate crime hoax that has been reasserted in the popular culture for more than one hundred years as of 2013 -- the disingenuous Frankite thesis that Leo Frank was suspected, indicted, convicted, denied his appeals, and hanged because of widespread white Southern Christian anti-Semitism.

In the Yawning Darkness on Sunday, April 27, 1913

After old Newt Lee, the newly hired African-American nightwatchman at the National Pencil Company, punched the timeclock in Leo Frank's second floor business office at 3:01 o'clock a.m., he went down to the stygian basement for the purpose of using the racially segregated Negro toilet. When he completed his business at the cellar's Earthen-Closet and went to check the large sliding wooden and steel framed door of the cellar service ramp, something out of the ordinary appeared faintly in the gloom. As Lee held up his flickering smoky lantern closer, it appeared to be a dead child who had been horribly mauled. Lee stepped back in a state of shock and disbelief, briskly shuffled his feet to the head of the basement and climbed up the ladder to the ground floor lobby and then clambered up the flight of stairs to the second floor to call his superintendent Leo Frank. After 8 minutes of trying to reach his boss, no one answered, so Newt called the Atlanta police station.

The grisly discovery launched an investigation that began precisely at 3:24 o'clock a.m. on Sunday, April 27, 1913, when the graveyard shift call-officer, W.F. Anderson was notified by telephone from a frantic Negro about the horrific discovery. A squadcar filled with officers and Britt Craig (a young, one year veteran Atlanta Constitution Journalist) was immediately dispatched by Anderson moments later. What happened next, was later revealed at the Leo Frank trial more than three months hence as first responders described in detail on the witness stand what events occurred upon their arrival at 3:40 o'clock a.m. until 7:00 a.m. when they finally reached Leo Frank by phone.

As dawn broke, after the police repeatedly failed to reach Leo Frank by phone, having attempted to call him all night long, they finally made contact at about 7:00 a.m. and informed him they were coming to his residence to speak with him, though they did not tell him what specifically had been discovered at the factory. Police rushed over to the Selig residence & carried him directly to the morgue for identifying the dead body. After Leo Frank claimed to be unsure about the identity of the dead girl, police officers drove him to factory in an effort to have him pinpoint the approximate time of Phagan's arrival via his accounting books.

The timeline is born with "Saturday, April 26, 1913 at 12:03 o'clock p.m."

Inside Leo's business office at about 8:00 a.m., he opened his payroll ledger and told the police officers that Mary Phagan had arrived at about 12:03 pm on Saturday, April 26, 1913, asking for her pay envelope and upon receiving she had left. Frank went on to tell the police he had not left his business office until 12:45 p.m. on that fateful yesterday.

Monday, April 28, 1913 at 9:00 a.m.

The next day, Monday morning, April 28, 1913, Leo Frank would change the time of Phagan's arrival to his office from 12:03 pm, to between, "12:05pm to 12:10pm, maybe 12:07pm" (State's Exhibit B, Leo Frank Trial Brief of Evidence, 1913; Atlanta Constitution, August 2, 1913).

Tuesday, April 29th, 1913

Leo Frank was arrested on suspicion of murder, Tuesday, April 29th at 11:35 o'clock a.m., it would be his last day of freedom. Two days after Frank's arrest, Jim Conley the factory roustabout was arrested on Thursday, May 1st, 1913.

Milestone in the Mary Phagan Murder Investigation

Something very interesting happened exactly one week after the murder of Mary Phagan on Saturday, May 3, 1913. The event was an unexpected surprise and major breakthrough that occurred when detectives stumbled upon one of the young female child laborers who was tendering her resignation at the National Pencil Company (NPCo). This significant former employee was fourteen year old Monteen Stover -- who was accompanied by her incensed stepmother -- making what astonishingly turned out to be a second attempt at collecting her pay envelope, because she had failed to retrieve it the first time on Georgia Confederate Memorial Day, when she came to the factory alone at five minutes past noon.

When police detectives thoroughly questioned Monteen Stover, she revealed something rather curious that would become the crux of the entire murder case: Little Miss Stover said, that when she had arrived at the NPCo exactly one week ago and made her first attempt to get her weekly wages, but was unable to do so because Leo Frank was not inside his office, like he normally was in the past at the normal payoff time, which was regularly designated as Saturdays at noon. More chronologically specific, Stover said Leo Frank's office was empty when she waited inside it from, 12:05 p.m. to 12:10 p.m., and that she knew this time because it was based upon the office's wallclock.

This was earth shattering news to investigators, because on Monday, April 28, Leo Frank in the presence of his elite attorneys (Luther Zeigler Rosser and Herbert Haas) made an unsworn stenographed deposition to a room full of Atlanta police detectives, where Frank precisely stated he was in his office alone with Mary Phagan between 12:05 p.m. and 12:10 p.m. (State's Exhibit B). Even more significant is that Leo Frank initially told the police on Sunday, April 27, 1913, not only that Mary Phagan had come to his office at 12:03 p.m., but that he had not left his office until 12:45 p.m.

Sunday, May 4, 1913, The Moment of Truth

Without Leo Frank knowing the police had discovered and questioned 14-year old Monteen Stover, Detectives John R. Black and Pinkerton Detective Harry A. Scott, approached Leo Frank in his jailcell on Sunday, May 4, and asked him to confirm again, if he had been in his office every minute on Saturday, April 26, from noon to 12:45 p.m., and Leo Frank responded with an affirmative 'Yes'. The officers then took a different angle and asked Leo Frank if he had been in his office every minute on Saturday, April 26, from noon to half passed noon (12:30 p.m.), and Leo Frank responded again with an affirmative 'Yes'.

It was then at 8 days after the murder of Mary Phagan, the police had discovered a possible discrepancy in Leo Frank's murder alibi. Leo Frank would maintain stoically up until his trial that he had never left his office, from noon, until he went upstairs to the fourth floor at 12:45pm, to tell two employees he was getting ready to leave the building for dinner (what they called a hot lunch in 1913).

Curious Inconsistency

As far as the police were concerned, the murder alibi of Leo Frank had possibly been unintentionally shattered by 14-year old Monteen Stover, but they would have to wait three and a half months to find out how Leo Frank would account for his new alibi timeline dispute, because that's how long Leo Frank would maintain that he never left his office, but then something electrifying happened... Something the Jewish community would continue to suppress for more than a century...

Apogee of the Leo Frank Murder Trial, August 18, 1913

At his murder trial, Leo Frank directly responded to the contradiction in his murder alibi caused by Monteen Stover's trial testimony. Leo Frank finally answered specifically why his office "might" have been empty at the exact same time he formerly claimed Phagan was with him alone in his window front office. Leo Frank changed his original murder alibi that he maintained for 3.5 months about having never left his office during the critical time, to explain the REAL reason why his office was empty on Saturday, April 26, 1913, between 12:05pm and 12:10pm, and not only was it deliciously ironic and a delectable twist, but in providing a newfangled explanation, he ineluctably gave away the solution to who killed Mary Phagan!

Unique Trial Analysis

Mary Phagan Kean also offers a uniquely neutral analysis of the month long capital murder trial, which began on July 28, and led to Leo Frank's August 25, 1913, murder conviction, after the jury deliberated for about two hours. The decision rendered by 12 White men, also included a "without mercy" recommendation to the presiding Judge, that a death sentence be meted-out for Leo Max Frank. Both the conviction & sentencing recommendation were affirmed the next day by the presiding Judge, the Honorable Leonard Strickland Roan, on Tuesday morning, August 26, 1913 at 10:30 a.m. Judge Roan sentenced the defendant Leo Frank to death by way of hanging as prescribed by the law, the execution date was first scheduled for October 10, 1913, but appeals postponed the execution date repeatedly for two more years.

Leo Frank's subsequent failed appeals, initiated from August 27, 1913 to April, 1915, and his eventual death sentence commutation by the corrupt Governor John M. Slaton, on June 21, 1915, led to a mob of 1200 angry citizens protesting at the Governor's mansion. The angry crowd was quelled and dispersed by a local armed militia.

The lawfirm of 'Luther Rosser, Morris Brandon, John Slaton and Benjamin Phillips'

Rarely ever mentioned in connection with Leo Frank's commutation is the fact that Governor John M. Slaton was part owner of the lawfirm representing Leo Frank at his trial and appeals. The lawfirm was officially called 'Rosser, Brandon, *Slaton* and Phillips' (the 'Slaton' was Governor John M. Slaton), and this politically powerful law group officially formed before Leo Frank's Trial began.

Governor Slaton had essentially commuted the death sentence of his own law client, after two years of failed appellate review at every level of the United States legal system. Thus naturally the public became outraged, because of the obvious conflict of interest and Slaton's betrayal to the constitutional oath of executive office.

Many people in the 21st century poignantly ask the question, "Can you imagine what the outcry would be if that exact same conflict of interest happened today?"

Leo Frank was whisked away by train to the Milledgeville State Penitentiary, located some 170 miles away on June 22nd 1915.

The Shanking of Leo Frank

About one month later, Leo Frank was attacked in prison and had the left side of his throat slashed at about 11:00 p.m. on Saturday, July 17, 1915. The shanking was conducted by fellow inmate William Creen. Leo Frank barely survived the attack. A fellow inmate who was serving a life sentence for murdering his wife, saved Leo Frank by stitching him up.

The Lynching of Leo Max Frank

On August 16, 1915, Leo Frank was abducted from prison in a well executed military commando style raid, by some of the most prominent citizens in the State of Georgia. Frank was driven for 8 hours North west to the edge of Atlanta and Marietta, then lynched at sunrise on August 17, 1913. The site of Leo Frank's lynching was at former Sheriff William Frey's Gin (now 1200 Roswell rd, Marietta, Georgia).

The Anti-Defamation League of B'nai B'rith

Seven decades after the lynching of Leo Frank, the well organized Jewish community applied political pressure and conducted backroom deals, lead by the Jewish Anti-Defamation League (ADL) of B'nai B'rith, prominent individual Jews and politically influential Jewish groups, resulting in a highly political posthumous pardon without criminal exoneration for Leo Frank officiated on Tuesday, March 11, 1986.

Alonzo "Lonnie" Mann (b. August 8, 1898) who provided obviously falsified testimony for the pardon had died a year earlier on March 19, 1985

The Leo Frank case continues to capture the imagination of the public, now more than ever, as 100 years have passed since this celebrated criminal case began that eventually evolved into a double murder strangulation.

Brief Biography of Leo Frank (1884 to 1915)

Leo Max Frank, was born in Cuero, Texas, on Thursday, April 17, 1884, to local postmaster, Rudolph Frank, an immigrant of Germany (1869), and homemaker Rachel Jacobs Frank, who was a native New Yorker from Brooklyn. The Frank family moved 3 months after Leo's birth back to Brooklyn, where Leo was raised and educated in the NYC public school system. After completing college prep work at the Pratt Institute Highschool of Brooklyn (1898 - 1902), Leo Frank matriculated into the Ivy League Cornell University in Ithaca, NY. At Cornell in the Fall of 1902, during his freshman year, Leo Frank chose to major in Mechanical Engineering and became very active in several college groups (debate club), sports teams (basketball and tennis) and general college social life.


During the summer break of 1905, between his Junior and Senior year at college, Leo Frank went with his wealthy uncle Moses Frank on an overseas sojourn, spending the summer traveling around Europe and visiting with extended family.


In the fall of 1905, Leo Frank began his senior year of college. And after successfully graduating on June 21, 1906, with a bachelor's degree in Mechanical Engineering, Leo Frank bounced around from one job to another, until he visited his rich uncle Moses in Georgia, mid October of 1907. There in Atlanta, Leo Frank meet with a delegation of Jewish Businessmen to discuss a potentially lucrative industrial venture manufacturing pencils.

After visiting Atlanta for two weeks, Leo Frank made the very serious life changing decision, and decided he wanted to make a major career move. To fulfill this promise, Leo Frank would again go on another sojourn overseas to Europe, arriving at the port in Cuxhaven, Germany, this time to study with the world renowned Eberhard-Faber in Bavaria.

Leo Frank left NYC on November 7, 1907, ocean bound for Europe. Once in Germany, Frank began diligently studying the pencil manufacturing process. After his 9 month engineering apprenticeship was completed, Leo Frank returned to NYC, August 1, 1908, on the USS Amerika, and then briefly stopped at his home in Brooklyn to visit his family (Rudolph, Rachel and sister Marian) for a few days.

On August 4, 1913, Leo Frank embarked on a South bound train from Penn Station in Manhattan with his weathered leather luggage and relocated to the capital of Georgia. Frank arrived at Terminal Station in Atlanta on August 6, 1908, and started a new life in the Heart of the South. On Monday morning, August 10th, 1908, Leo Frank began his first day of work at the National Pencil Company, located at 37 to 41 South Forsyth Street in downtown Atlanta. On September 1, 1908, he was promoted to the factory's General Superintendent.

1910, Leo Frank Marries Lucille Selig

Two years later on November 30, 1910, Leo Frank married into an upper middle class German-Jewish family (Cohen-Selig), an established patrician Southern family whose ancestors founded the first synagogue congregation in Atlanta two generations prior. Leo Frank emerged as a rising star, becoming very actively involved with Jewish philanthropy and Atlanta's upper-crust society life. And even though Frank was born in Texas, and raised in Brooklyn, he assimilated rather quickly in Georgia and was elected B'nai B'rith President of the Gate City Lodge #174 in Atlanta, September, 1912, by its local 500 member Jewish fraternal order.

By 1913, with nearly 5 years of hands-on experience in pencil manufacturing, Leo Frank had reached the pinnacle of his career, running the factory as not only its director, but also as a stake holder through the acquisition of company shares. His high rank and partial ownership enabled him to receive $100 a month as a courtesy by the company directors while he was imprisoned.


Founded on April 8th, 1908, the National Pencil Company had three divisions, 1) cedar slat mill for producing pencil shafts, 2) Smelting facility for producing lead pencil rods, and the HQ production facility where the industrial materials were processed. The National Pencil Co. headquarters was where Thirteen year old Mary Phagan had begun working as an entry level child laborer in the early Spring of 1912, or about a little more than a year (13 months) before she was murdered. Mary Phagan worked about 150 feet down the hall from Leo Frank's office on the 2nd floor, where she participated in the finishing production stages of the pencil manufacturing process. Mary Phagan worked in the metal department, known colloquially by factory employees as the "metal room", in a section called the tipping department (her workstation was adjacent to the only set of bathrooms located on the second floor). Using a knurling machine, Phagan's job involved inserting rubber erasers into the paper-thin brass metal tubes that were partially attached around the ends of pencil stock.

The Only Bathroom on the Second Floor was Located Inside the Metalroom

One of the most important details rarely mentioned by Leo Frank partisans about the "metal room", where Mary Phagan worked 6 days a week, was that the only bathrooms on the second floor were situated there - which became a critical detail to the solution of her murder. Moreover, Mary Phagan's work station was less than 4 feet away from the bathroom entryway and Leo Frank would regularly pass immediately by her everyday when he needed to use the toilet. And given that Leo Frank was known for drinking copious amounts of black coffee everyday, he would have passed by Phagan on a regular basis during the year she toiled at her workstation.

Death Announcement

Word of Mary Phagan's death had already reached all of Atlanta after a newspaper "Extra", published by the Atlanta Constitution at the behest of Britt Craig, was released on Sunday, April 27, 1913, just hours after the normal Sunday morning edition already appeared. A full front news page announcement in the Atlanta Constitution was released on Monday morning, April 28, 1913.

Forensic Evidence Discovered, Monday, April 28, 1913

It was the metal room, where an unusual 5 inch wide blood stain crowned with spatter droplets was found on the floor adjacent to the bathroom entryway, and hair soaked with blood that had dried, was found tangled around the solid iron handle of a lathe at an adjacent wall. These forensic discoveries in the metal room were initially made Monday morning, at 6:35 AM, on April 28, 1913, when an early bird employee named Robert P. Barret, arrived at work to start the fresh work week after the holiday weekend festivities. As Barret's hand reached for the handle of his lathe, his fingers became entangled with hair that was not previously there the prior Friday evening, April 25, at 6:00 o'clock p.m. when he left his workstation.

Once the word got out about the discovery of hair and blood forensic evidence in the metal room, it traveled like wildfire around the factory, employees erupted into emotional hysterics, flocked to the metal room, gawking at these unusual blood stains on the floor, and tangled tress of 6 to 8 hairs scrambled around and suspended from the handle of the bench lathe. A number of employees immediately recognized the hair as distinctly being Mary Phagan's, and testified to that effect at the Leo Frank trial.

A white powdery machine lubricant known as haskolene was found suspiciously smeared and rubbed into the fresh blood stains on the metal room floor. What was so significant about the location of the blood stains is that they were conspicuously in front of the girls dressing room and next to the bathroom door, adjacent to where Phagan's workstation was located. The powder smearing appeared to be an attempt to cover up the evidence, but the blood bled through the white powder, turning the dark maroon stains into variations of white, pink and red. The blood stain also had a star burst spatter pattern behind it indicating the direction of how it came into contact with the floor.

Botched Crime Scene Clean-up Job

The poorly conducted "clean-up job", gave the appearance to be a failed attempt at obscuring the blood stains, near where the murder victim - it was later revealed - was first seen by Jim Conley the factory sweeper. Conley testified he found Mary Phagan dead in the men's toilet.

Little Mary Phagan's Life (1899 - 1913):

The 55 hour work week Mary Phagan performed at the pencil factory for about 7.5 cents an hour (actually 7 and 4/11 cents an hour), earning her $4.05 was her small way of helping support her five siblings, and widowed mother Frances (who remarried a cotton mill worker named John William Coleman in 1912). Mary Phagan's step father knew Mary and her family quite well, for about 4 years, before marrying into the Phagan family. Mr. Coleman identified the hair found on the lathe machine as belonging to Mary Phagan, as did several other employees who worked in the metal room (See: Georgia Supreme Court Records, 1914).

Temporarily Layoff of little Mary Anne Phagan (b. Thursday, June 1, 1899)

During the week before Phagan's murder, a shortage of brass sheet metal at the factory had led to a reduction in her work hours and she was temporarily laid off by orders of Leo Frank on Monday, April 21, 1913, until the supplies could be replenished. Phagan's wages for the shortened work week came to just $1.20, for the 16 hours she had worked the previous Friday, April 18, (10 hours), and Saturday, April 19, (6 hours) prior to her being laid off on Monday, April 21.

Flash Back to the First 48 Hours of the Mary Phagan Murder Investigation

George W. Epps made statements on Monday afternoon on April 28, 1913, providing troubling allegations to Atlanta police, stating that Mary had told him in confidence that Leo Frank scared her, and he often made lascivious sexual innuendos and inappropriate insinuations toward her. According to Epps, Mary told him specifically that Leo Frank would sometimes run up in front of her, thus ostensibly blocking her way when she was trying to leave work at the end of the day, and during the work day he would pester her, get a little bit too close for comfort, touch her shoulders & stare at her lecherously and then smile. Phagan allegedly suggested to Epps she was growing ever more scared of her superintendent.

According to the unabridged Leo Frank Georgia Supreme Court Case file, George Epps, after the Leo Frank murder trial concluded, got kidnapped & ensnared in a witness tampering and subornation of perjury scandal by Leo Frank's legal defense team (Georgia Supreme Court Records, 1913, 1914).

Epps was lured to Alabama with the promise of a job and then coerced into signing a false affidavit under duress repudiating what he had told police. After George Epps was freed by his kidnappers, he later signed a true affidavit, describing the intimate details, moment by moment, of his being abducted and taken all the way to Alabama. The true affidavit described in details the dishonest trickery that unraveled when Epps was forced to sign a pre-written affidavit that was filled with lies and recantations.

In The First 24 Hours of the Mary Phagan Murder, Sunday, April 27, 1913

When the police arrived on the scene in the basement of the National Pencil Company at 3:45 a.m., they found Mary Phagan's mangled body on the remnants of a saw dust mound diagonal to the furnace, she had been strangled with a cord and what looked like a frilly strip or part of her petticoat wrapped around her neck and soaked with blood concealed the garrot (the cord used to strangle Mary). Her dress was soaked in urine as if someone had pissed all over her body.

When Atlanta Police scoured the basement there was evidence Phagan had been dragged by her feet face down from the basement's elevator entry, 140 feet, before she was dumped near the cellar's incinerator. Phagan's face was so scratched up, punctured, and covered with charred cinders, that at first the police were unsure of her race. They had to roll down a stocking from her knee to see for sure if she was White or Negro. However, Newt Lee remarked that he knew she was White because of the texture of her hair.

The autopsy would reveal Phagan had been hit on the face around the temple and right eyesocket with a left fist (Leo Frank was left handed), there was also a major gash on the back of her head. The knitted bloomers of Mary Phagan were still around her hips, but torn open across the vagina to the seam of the right leg, she had the appearance of having been violently raped, with blood and discharge present on her underwear. Phagan's face was beaten black-and-blue, and sunk deep into her neck was the 1/8th inch thick, 7 foot jute cord, that she had been strangled to death with. One of the state physicians who performed an autopsy, testified under oath, to several instances of sexual violence, and internal vaginal bruising, torn flesh and inflammation, suggesting some kind of rape either penile or by fingers occurred before she was killed.

Leo M. Frank, Factory Superintendent

When the detectives arrived at Leo Frank's in-laws home, the door was answered by Lucille clad in a white cotton bathrobe. The police asked if they could speak with Mr. Frank and Lucy welcomed them into her parents home. Like typical seasoned detectives, without telling Leo Frank why they were there and what it was all about, they closely observed Frank. Suspicion initially fell on Leo Frank at first sight, because he appeared to be extremely nervous, trembling, rubbing his hands, and ghastly pale. Police intimated Leo Frank appeared to be badly hung over, while he was bumbling, and Jim-jamming in an agitated state. When Leo Frank asked for a cup of coffee, one of the police officers jocosely suggested whiskey. Leo Frank then began asking questions faster than the police could answer them in time. Frank's voice sounded hoarse and he struggled with simple tasks like fixing his collar before leaving with the police. Moreover, Leo kept saying he hadn't had breakfast and kept asking for a cup of coffee as if he was trying to delay the the process of being taken to the industrial plant he managed.

The police asked Leo Frank if he knew Mary Phagan, and he immediately denied knowing any Mary Phagan, saying he would need to check his accounting ledger to be sure. Frank then made some passing remark about not really knowing the girls who worked for him.The significance of Leo Frank claiming to not know Mary Phagan become an important circumstance further into the investigation, because it was later determined by factory records, she had worked for him more than a year on the same floor as his office. Another incriminating fact against Leo Frank's claims of not knowing Mary Phagan, was the payroll ledgers revealed that she had collected more than 52 pay envelopes from Leo during her year of employment and during that time she logged an impressive 2,750+ work hours registed on the punch-clock at the factory from specifically: the Spring 1912, to Monday, April 21, 1913 (when she was temporarily laid off by Leo Frank, because of a shortage in metal). At the trial several employees testified indicating Frank knew Mary Phagan quite well and on a first name basis, others suggested they saw Leo behave inappropriately toward girls working at the factory.

Ugly Racist Framing of the Nightwatchman ("night witch") Newt Lee

On Sunday morning at 8:26 a.m., April 27, 1913, in the presence of the Atlanta police, Leo Frank pulled out Newt Lee's time card, eye balled it from the top downward and said it was punched correctly every half hour from the time between 6:00pm on April 26, 1913 to 3:00 am on Sunday, April 27, 1913. However, on Monday, April 28, 1913, Leo Frank changed his story and told the Atlanta Police that Newt Lee did not punch his time card at 4 disparate intervals, creating 4 hours of unaccounted for time. It put even greater suspicion on Newt Lee, because the old Negro lived less than half an hour away, the intervals suggested he had more than enough time to go home, potentially hide evidence and return to the factory.

Intimations to Search Newt Lee's Shack

After Frank made his Monday morning, April 28, 1913, deposition to Atlanta Police that became known as State's Exhibit B, he told the police to check his body for scratches and visit his home to inspect his laundry. Leo Frank removed his shirt and the police found no visible scratchmarks on his body, and then accompanying the police to the Selig residence, Minola brought forth the dirty laundry basket and the clothes within it, that indicated no blood stains. Given Leo Frank's intimations about Newt Lee's timecard, the natural thing for the Atlanta police to do next was search Newt Lee's shack for evidence. And surprise-surprise, guess what they found?

Tuesday, April 29, 1913

Tuesday morning, April 29, 1913, the police entered Newt Lee's shack without a warrant (violating his constitutional rights) using a skeleton key, outside his residence at the bottom of a garbage burn barrel, they found a suspicious looking clean, but bloodied shirt. The shirt had blood stains high up on the armpits in the front, back, and inside, in such a manner the police immediately thought it was forged and planted there intentionally. What also made detectives think the shirt might have been fabricated to frame Newt Lee is because the shirt, aside from the oddly placed blood stains, appeared clean and did not have the distinctive "Negro odor" on it, as they later recalled, when they each had taken turns sniffing it on Tuesday morning, April 29, 1913.

Newt Lee's Blood Soaked Shirt

Three contrived elements perplexed Atlanta Police about Newt Lee's shirt, the fact it was clean, but covered with oddly placed blood smears, and had no funky "African scent". These factors taken together gave the suggestion the shirt was meant to incriminate Newt Lee, but naturally they thought why? When the police questioned Newt Lee about the shirt, he said someone gave it to him 2 years ago and he hadn't worn it since. At that moment, the police began thinking, perhaps someone was trying to implicate Newt Lee the nightwatch, because the "death notes" were written with Lee's job title misspelled as "night witch" (factory employees called the nightwatchman colloquially nightwatch) written on them. The time card contradiction seemed odd, because one day it was punched perfectly, the next it was supposedly missing 4 punches and then finally the odd shirt, all together were circumstances that began directing strong suspicion on Leo Frank, atleast in the minds of the Atlanta Police and detectives investigating the crime.

Leo Frank's last full day of freedom was Monday, April 28, 1913, because on Tuesday, April 29, 1913, at 11:30PM Leo Frank was arrested and would remain incarcerated until his hanging two years later at 1200 Roswell Rd in Marietta.

The Negro Janitor James "Jim" Conley

On Thursday afternoon, May 1st, 1913, the day watchman E.F. Holloway called the police to report that he saw Jim Conley washing out blood from his shirt in a factory sink. When the police arrived and examined it drying on an overhead pipe, they noticed it was rust, and returned the shirt back to Conley, but then arrested him.

The Atlanta police "swetted" Jim Conley using the 3rd degree methodology (good cop / bad cop) and after weeks of initial failure and 3 half-truth affidavits, Atlanta's finest finally got Conley to admit he was an accessory-after-the-fact to the crime. More importantly, the police finally got the details out of Conley the events leading up to him finding the dead body of Phagan in the men's toilet and how he transported the cadaver to the basement. They also were able to get an eye witness account of how Leo Frank was plotting and orchestrating a racist frame-up on the afternoon of April 26, 1913.

What Happened According to Jim Conley

Jim Conley admitted he was asked by Leo Frank to move the corpse of Mary Phagan to the basement and "ghost write" dictated "death notes" in his own words as if they were written by Mary Phagan, while she was in the middle of being raped. It was necessary they be written in Negro hand writing, to draw suspicion to another Negro. In the South it was considered the highest outrage for a Black man to rape and murder a White girl. The bigoted plot was Ivy League brilliant and sinisterly racist, because it put two Negroes between Leo Frank and Mary Phagan. All Jim Conley had to do was keep his mouth shut for the racist gambit to succeed, but it took the cops less than three weeks to crack him.

The Oddity of the Mary Phagan Murder Notes

The murder notes were a very contrived attempt to make it appear as if an ignorant semi-literate Negro was trying to charade the notion that Mary Phagan had written the "death notes" after she went to the bathroom in the metal room, was pushed down a hole and then sexually assaulted by Newt Lee in the basement. The "death notes" where unmistakably clear in their attempt to pin the crime and point suspicion on the "long tall slim Negro" night watchman Newt Lee ("night witch"), because the notes physically described Lee exactly, including his job title colloquially 'Night Watch' ebonicized as 'Night Witch'.

Looking back from the 21st century to 1913, the "death notes" cause many people to ask themselves, when or ever in history of the cosmos has a Blackman committed battery, rape, robbery, strangulation and mutilation of a White girl, and then stuck around to write some pseudo-literature as if they were being written by the victim herself in the middle of the rape and addressing the notes to her mother, describing what happened from the perspective of the victim.

"I write while he plays"... but the notes were unbelievable from the start, because Police thought never in history has someone written notes while they were in the midst of being raped.

The Trial of Leo M. Frank (July 28, 1913, to August 26, 1913)

Harry A. Scott of the Pinkerton National Detective agency was hired by Sigmond Montag, treasurer of the National Pencil Company to "ferret out the murderer no matter who it was". There was some conflicting testimony about what Leo Frank had said concerning a question Mary Phagan asked him (Mr. Leo Frank) at 12:02 pm or 12:03 PM on April 26, 1913. On Monday, April 28, 1913. Pinkerton Detective Harry Scott was told by Leo Frank that Mary Phagan asked him "Has the metal come in?". Leo Frank said he told her "No", but Scott told the jury, Leo Frank said to him that he told Phagan: "I Don't Know" -- it tended to create a scenario of three dimensional time and space with Leo and Mary walking together toward the metal room for the purpose of "finding out", as the brass was normally kept in the metal-room closet.

Star Witness Monteen Stover and the (THIRD) Leo Frank Incriminating Admission

The real star witness at the Leo Frank Trial it turns out was not only Jim Conley, but the 14-Year-old & 5'2" tall White girl Monteen Stover.

Monteen Stover who liked Leo Frank and defended his character at the trial, had inadvertently put Leo Frank's murder alibi into dispute. Leo Frank swore to his lawyers, the Coroner Paul Donehoo, police, and detectives during the investigation into Phagan's murder over a 3.5 months period, that he had never left his office on April 26, 1913, from twelve noon to 12:45pm. However, Monteen Stover had arrived at the factory to collect her pay envelope just minutes after Phagan arrived, but she did not bump into Mary Phagan walking down the stairs and Leo Frank was not in his office. Nor was Leo Frank aware that Monteen Stover had arrived and waited for him inside his second floor office for five minutes between 12:05 pm to 12:10 pm.

The jury naturally would ask themselves, how come Monteen Stover neither coming or going from the factory didn't bump into Mary Phagan between 12:04pm and 12:11pm, as it took about 1 minute (46 seconds) to reach Leo Frank's second floor office from the front door of the factory lobby and about the same time to leave the factory from the said office.

Leo Frank would change his alibi-story about never leaving his office and respond to the testimony of Monteen Stover stating, he might have "unconsciously" gone to the only bathroom in the metalroom during that exact time!

Leo Frank Gave the Jury the Solution to the Mary Phagan Murder Mystery on Monday Afternoon, August 18, 1913 at 2:46 pm

Now gentlemen [of the Jury], to the best of my recollection from the time the whistle blew for twelve o’clock [noon on Saturday, April 26, 1913] until after a quarter to one [12:46 p.m.] when I went up stairs and spoke to Arthur White and Harry Denham [at the rear of the fourth floor], to the best of my recollection, I did not stir out of the inner office [at the front of the second floor]; but it is possible that in order to answer a call of nature or to urinate I may have gone to the toilet [in the metal room at the rear of the second floor]. Those are things that a man does unconsciously and cannot tell how many times nor when he does it (Leo Frank Trial Statement, August 18, Brief of Evidence, 1913).

Crescendo of the Leo Frank Murder Trial: State's Exhibit A and Defendant's Exhibit 61

Leo Frank ineluctably entrapped himself beyond escape, because the only men's toilet on the second floor was located within the metal room, it was the metal room where the murder forensic evidence was found (bloody hair and bloodstains) and the prosecution had successfully built a month long case that Leo Frank had murdered Mary Phagan on April 26, 1913 in the metal room between 12:05pm and 12:10pm.

To make matters even worse, Leo Frank had made a statement (as stated above, known as State's Exhibit B) stenographed by G. C. Febuary on Monday morning, April 28, 1913, where Frank said Mary Phagan had arrived into his office alone between 12:05PM and 12:10PM on April 26, 1913, but Frank's office was empty according to Monteen Stover during that same time, when she came for her pay. And then it happened! Leo replied to this incongruity, by saying he might "unconsciously" have been inside the metal room's bathroom using the toilet, the exact place where Jim Conley had stated to the Jury on April 4th, 1913 that he found Mary Phagan dead, after Leo Frank told him he strangled her because she wouldn't have sex with him.

Be sure to read the *abridged* final closing statements of State's prosecution team leader, the Solicitor General Hugh Manson Dorsey and his Associate Frank Arthur Hooper in American State Trials Volume X (10) 1918 by John Davison Lawson LLD, for their unique take on the Leo Frank trial testimony and evidence. One should also read the really long winded *unabridged* closing arguments of Hugh Manson Dorsey published in 1914 as 'The Argument of Hugh M. Dorsey' (available on

The Leo Frank trial would make history, because it would be the first time in the South, the testimony of two Negroes (James "Jim" Conley & Newton "Newt" Lee) would provide evidence that in part, led to the conviction and death sentence of a Whiteman by an all White jury, in the White racially conscious, Separatist and segregated Old South (a place where Jews were respected, highly regarded and treated as equals to Whites).

Firebrand Tom E. Watson

Many would argue the best post trial analysis of the Leo Frank "murder confession" is articulated by the criminal defense lawyer, and populist politician Tom Edward Watson, in his Watson's Magazine, January, March, August, September and October of 1915, and his weekly Jeffersonian Newspaper in some specific issues during the years of 1914, 1915, 1916, and 1917. Though some would argue his best analysis on the Leo Frank trial are found in Watson's Magazine issues August and September of 1915.

Appeals 1913 to 1915

Numerous half-baked and frivolous appeals petitions were made by the Leo Frank Legal Defense Team to the Georgia Superior Court, Georgia Supreme Court, US Federal District Court, and United States Supreme Court, all of these appeals were denied after careful review, with lengthy decisions written and rendered (see: Leo Frank Appeals 1913, 1914, 1915). In April of 1915, Leo Frank had exhausted all of his court appeals.

Commutation June 21, 1915

The departing Governor of Georgia, John M. Slaton, decided to commute the death sentence of his own lawfirm's client, Leo Frank, at the 11th hour, to life in prison on June 21, 1915, just days before the end of his last term as Governor. It was an act of political suicide, but it didn't matter, as Slaton was leaving office anyway on June 26, 1915, and he earned 25% of the lawfirm's lucrative profits. Slaton left Georgia and went on a tour of the United States.

The protest at the Governor's mansion formed to angrily protest the commutation, because it was a gross conflict of interest, not because of anti-Semitism. Rarely ever mentioned by Leo Frank partisans is the connection between Leo Frank's commutation and the fact Governor John M. Slaton was part owner of the lawfirm that represented Leo Frank at his trial and during his appeals. Rarely do books written by Jewish authors ever mention the lawfirm was called Rosser, Brandon, 'Slaton' and Phillips (the 'Slaton' was Governor John M. Slaton).

Leo Frank Prison Shanking, July 17, 1915

Leo Frank got shanked in prison by a fellow inmate named William Creen, who used a 7 inch butcher knife to slash the left side of Leo Frank's throat. To add anti-Semitic psychological warfare to the incident, rumors began circulating the knife had been used for slaughtering hogs. Leo Frank barely survived the attack, thanks to inmate doctors who came to his aid in the nick of time and stitched him up. The tender wound was slow to heal in the hot & humid summer of 1915.

The Lynching of Leo Frank

One month after the shanking and almost 2 months after Leo Frank received his controversial clemency, a well organized group of about 25 to 35 men, many of whom were from Georgia's highest strata of politics and society, organized themselves into the 'Knights of Mary Phagan'. This newly formed group of Georgia's elites, sought to fulfill the conviction of the Jury and death sentence judgment ratified by Judge Leonard Strickland Roan. From their point of view, this band of men sought to deliver righteous retribution in the form of "Southern Style Vigilante Justice", which is called by the mainstream: Lynching.

From Milledgeville to Atlanta

After more than 2 months of careful planning, Leo Frank was kidnapped from the minimum security Milledgeville penitentiary infirmary on the evening of Monday, August 16, 1915, at 10 p.m., then driven all through the night for 8 hours and lynched in the early hours of August 17, 1915, from a mature oak tree's sturdy branch a few miles away from where Mary Phagan had formerly lived at one time.

Post Lynching, August 17, 1915

Once word got out about the lynching, Leo Frank's dangling body became a public spectacle, photographs were taken and the pictures of Leo Franks lifeless suspended body, became popular post cards. Leo Frank was cut down and one hot-headed yahoo started stomping on his face and chest and other people had to pull him away and calm the savage down.

How the Most Definitive Book on the Leo Frank Case was Born

The book 'The Murder of Little Mary Phagan' is written by the namesake of the murder victim, Mary Phagan's great niece named Mary Phagan Kean. When Phagan Kean was 13 years old, she discovered her given name was no mere accident or coincidence. When people heard her name, they started asking her questions about whether she was related to the famous little Mary Phagan who had been murdered long ago by Leo Frank on Confederate Memorial Day, Saturday, April 26, 1913.

Phagan-Kean would learn a startling secret when people started asking her questions about her curious name, so she asked her family if she was somehow connected to the Mary Phagan who was murdered so long ago in the National Pencil Factory. When her family revealed the truth about her blood relation, she immediately became insatiably interested in learning about the investigation, and its aftermath.

Instantly becoming a life long student of the case at age 13, Phagan-Kean has since devoted every free moment of her life studying volumes of legal documents, and reading every surviving newspaper account surrounding the rape and strangulation of her great aunt, 13 year old Little Mary Anne Phagan (1899 to 1913) and the biography of Leo Max Frank (1884 to 1915).

B'nai B'rith

Leo Frank was the President of the 500 member Atlanta Chapter of B'nai B'rith beginning in 1912, and even after his conviction, he was unanimously re-elected again in September 1913, until his term expired in September 1914.

As a result of his 1913 conviction, the case turned into a national scandal and eventually evolved into a sensational cause celebre for the Jewish Community. Leo Frank's conviction, would become the galvanizing force of false "anti-Semitism", catalyzing the formation of the Anti-Defamation League of B'nai B'rith, born in October, 1913, or ADL for short. The lynching of Leo Frank sparked the revival of the defunct and nativist ethnic nationalist Ku Klux Klan (KKK) on November 24, 1915.

The KKK considers themselves the "immune system of the United States of America", providing an immunal, White blood cell response to what they perceived as an infection of the United States of America, as a host-body, by a collectively organized Jewish virus/parasite community. The ADL considers itself on the other hand, the foremost civil rights group in America and the world, defending Jews and Israel against criticism, calling it "anti-Semitism".


Jewish Scholars overwhelmingly produced the lion share of all the written "persecution and victim-centric" books, articles, web sites, scripts, video, media, songs, Broadway plays, documentaries, miniseries and texts about the subject of Leo Frank and Mary Phagan, and almost unanimously allege widespread Antisemitic Gentiles were behind it all, "a text book case of Anti-Semitism"; the railroading, and framing of an innocent Northern Jewish Man because of Gentile anti-Jewish racism, prejudice and religious hatred. Leo Frank partisan books often leave out volumes of the relevant facts, evidence, affidavits and testimony concerning the Leo Frank case, dishonestly spinning the facts convenient to creating doubt about Leo Franks guilty verdict and making racist blood-libel smears against non-Jews.

If you have any doubts about Leo Frank's guilt study the brief of evidence and Georgia Supreme Court records!

1982 and 1983: The Alonzo Mann Media Circus

In 1982, Alonzo Mann, a lonely, broke and senile octogenarian, who also happened to be the former office boy of Leo Frank for three weeks in April, 1913, came forward in 1982 at the behest of the Anti-Defamation League of B'nai B'rith to provide new statements about what he saw on April 26, 1913.

In 1982, which was about 69 years after the murder of Mary Phagan and trial of Leo M. Frank, Alonzo "Lonnie" Mann went public with a questionable story, claiming he had withheld information from the Leo M. Frank legal defense team, police, Solicitor General Hugh M. Dorsey, Judge Leonard Strickland Roan, the Jury of 12 White men, Appeals Courts, Slaton's Commutation hearing and seven decades of people.

Alonzo Mann said that, he went back to the National Pencil Company Factory five minutes after he left it at noon on April 26, 1913, and saw the Negro Janitor Jim Conley, carrying the body of Mary Phagan on his shoulder, and Jim Conley reached out his hand for Alonzo Mann and said to the young boy, "if you tell anyone , I will kill you". Alonzo Mann, claimed he ran home and told his family and his mother told him not to tell anyone.

These statements given by Alonzo Mann in the 1980's made no sense at all and came off as a desperate web of lies according to many people who heard his newfangled claims.

First, why would White parents in a White racial separatist Georgia of 1913, tell their White son not to tell the police about a "murdering", and thus ostensibly guilty black janitor Jim Conley, with the result being an "innocent" clean cut White boss, Leo Frank, who gave their son a highly prized job, wrongfully going to gallows? Instead of a guilty Negro?

Second, why would White parents allow their son to report to work on Monday Morning, April 28, 1913, right after their son was threatened with death on Saturday April 26, 1913? Alonzo Mann Reported for work Monday morning, April 28, 1913 when all the forensic revelations were made at the National Pencil Company and he too witnessed them.

Third, if Alonzo Mann admitted in 1982 he lied under oath at the Leo Frank trial in 1913 (about leaving at 11:30 am instead of noon), what's not to say he wasn't lying again in 1982 / 1983, when he said he had gone back to the factory at 12:05pm after leaving at noon?

70 years after the trial, he was asked why he came back, and he said it was about a baseball bet he made with Schiff, but everyone knew Herbert Schiff was not meant to come to work that day - including Herbert Schiff who hinted as such at the trial.

Fourth, Alonzo Mann said he came back to the factory at 12:05pm, this was about the time Monteen Stover said she came to the factory, how come Monteen Stover didn't walkin on this horrifying scene either?

Fifth, when Jim Conley was arrested and held by police there was no risk of Alonzo Mann being "killed", he could have safely approached the police.

The ADL tried to use the Alonzo Mann hoax to get a posthumous exoneration for Leo Frank at first in 1982-1983, but it failed. But they didn't give up, three long years of political machinations, back room wheeling and dealing continued until a second attempt was made.

1986: ADL Second Attempt, Partially Successful

In 1986, pressure from the powerful Jewish community, Jewish groups and ADL (Anti-Defamation League of B'nai B'rith), resulted in the highly political March 11, 1986 posthumous pardon of Leo Frank without exoneration of the crime.

There was only one problem with the highly political pardon of Leo Frank, because Alonzo Mann had died March 19, 1985 and no one could question him about the incident. The politically corrupt Georgia Board of Pardons and Paroles forgave Leo Frank with a pardon, but kept Leo Frank's GUILT intact and thus did not disturb the verdict of the Leo Frank Trial Judge and Jury.

On March 11, 1986, a pardon without exoneration of guilt was issued by the board:

Without attempting to address the question of guilt or innocence, and in recognition of the State's failure to protect the person of Leo M. Frank and thereby preserve his opportunity for continued legal appeal of his conviction, and in recognition of the State's failure to bring his killers to justice, and as an effort to heal old wounds, the State Board of Pardons and Paroles, in compliance with its Constitutional and statutory authority, hereby grants to Leo M. Frank a Pardon.

A most grotesque symbol of ADL power reminded the American people who really runs politics in America.

Even with the posthumous pardon, it was specified the guilt of Leo M. Frank remains permanently intact, because his official conviction was not changed, disturbed or tampered with from 1913 to 1986. As of March 11, 1986, Leo M. Frank remains guilty in the eyes of Black Letter and Settled Law forever more, though he was forgiven of his crime by the board, he was not forgiven by the public that detests rapist-pedohiles and child killers. Leo Frank's partisans cite the posthumous pardon as proof of Leo Frank's innocence.

A number of fictionalized media dramatizations and treatments have been made about the case in the form of miniseries, Broadway plays, Hollywood dramas, political docudramas, video blogs, and songs, conducted across the international media landscape, all mostly created by Jews making a mockery of the life of a little Christian girl, who is used as nothing more than a cheap plot device to launch Leo Frank's persecution hoax at the hands of evil anti-Semitic Goyim.

Attempts for more than 100 years are continually being launched to idealize and rehabilitate the image of Leo Frank as an innocent and stoic Jewish victim of American anti-Semitism. The efforts to transfigure Leo Frank from a perverted pedophile, rapist and strangler into a holy Jewish religious martyr of collective Gentile prejudice has continued unchallenged in the popular culture for more than 100 years.

The blood libel against the Leo Frank prosecution team, European-Americans and people who think Leo Frank is guilty, continues to this day by the organized Jewish community.

Three Leo M. Frank incriminating statements considered admissions equivalent to murder confessions From the 1913 Brief of Evidence

1. Jim Conley, Saturday, April 26, 1913, circa noon to 1:00 PM (See Jim Conley affidavits and trial testimony in the brief of evidence (1913) and Georgia supreme court case file about Leo Frank (1913, 1914).

2. Lucille Selig Frank, Saturday Late Evening, April 26, 1913, 10:30 PM (See State's Exhibit J, Brief of Evidence, 1913)

3. The Public, Monday, August 18, 1913, (Leo Frank's four hour unsworn trial statement, August 18, Brief of Evidence, 1913). Leo Frank's explanation on the witness stand to the trial jury, why Monteen Stover had found his office was empty between 12:05pm and 12:10pm on April 26, 1913, with an unconscious bathroom visit: (Leo Frank Trial Brief of Evidence, 1913, p. 186).

The Fourth Leo Frank Admission that Amounted to an authorized Jailhouse Murder Confession Published in the Atlanta Constitution
4. Leo Frank confirmed his August 18, 1913, murder trial bathroom admission-confession in the March 9, 1914, issue of the Atlanta Constitution.

Leo Frank's defenders won't ever dare to mention the "unconscious" bathroom murder trial confession that Leo Frank made on the witness stand when he was giving his four hour unsworn statement at the trial on Monday afternoon, August 18, 1913, between 2:15pm and 6:00pm. Thoughtful and analytical interpretations of the statement Leo Frank made to counter Monteen Stover's testimony are always left out of most Leo Frank revisionist books, even though it proves Leo Frank's guilt indisputably when juxtaposed with State's Exhibit B and Jim Conley testimony about finding Mary Phagan dead in the metalroom bathroom (see: State's Exhibit A, item #9), at the behest of Leo Frank (see: Leo Frank's trial statement, Monteen Stover's trial testimony, State's Exhibit B, Jim Conley's trial testimony and affidavits, brief of evidence, 1913).

Leo Frank is the only person in early 20th century US history to make what amounted to a murder confession at his own trial, leaving most people shocked.

See: The final closing arguments of Hugh M. Dorsey, Frank Arthur Hooper (American State Trials, Volume X, 1918, John D. Lawson) and Tom Watson's analysis of Leo Frank's trial admission amounting to a murder confession (Watson Magazine, September, 1915).
Be sure to study, the Leo Frank Trial Brief of Evidence, 1913, and the 1,800 page Leo M. Frank Georgia Supreme Court Case File (1913, 1914).

This Review Published on April 26, 2013

Excellent sources of research and information about the Leo Frank Case include:

0. The Leo Frank Case Inside Story of Georgia's Greatest Murder Mystery 1913 - The first neutral book written about the murder of Mary Phagan and trial of Leo Frank.

1. The Murder of Little Mary Phagan by Mary Phagan Kean (Available on Written by Mary Phagan Kean, the great grand niece of Mary Phagan. A neutral account of the events surrounding the trial and appeals of Leo Frank, including his posthumous pardon. The Murder of Little Mary Phagan is well worth reading and it is a refreshing change from the endless number of Jewish authored modern and contemporary books, disingenuously transforming the Leo Frank case into a neurotic, anti-Gentile, race obsessed tabloid controversy.

2. American State Trials, volume X (1918) by John Lawson tends to be biased in favor of Leo Frank and his legal defense team. This case commentary review provides an *abridged* version of the Brief of Evidence, leaving out some of the important testimony and evidence when it republishes parts of the trial testimony. Be sure to read the abridged closing arguments of Luther Zeigler Rosser, Reuben Rose Arnold, Frank Arthur Hooper and Hugh Manson Dorsey. For a more complete version of the Leo M. Frank trial testimony, read the 1913 Leo Frank Case Brief of Evidence.

3. Argument of Hugh M. Dorsey in the Trial of Leo Frank. Some but not all of the 9 hours of arguments given to the Jury at the end of the Leo Frank trial on August 22, 23, and 25, 1913. Only 18 libraries in the United States have copies of these statements in book format. This is an excellent book and required reading for students of the Leo Frank case to see how Hugh Dorsey, in sales vernacular, 'closed' the panel of 13 men (the trial jury of 12 men plus Judge Leonard Strickland Roan).

4. Leo M. Frank, Plaintiff in Error, vs. State of Georgia, Defendant in Error. In Error from Fulton Superior Court at the July Term 1913, Brief of Evidence. Only three original copies from 1913 and 1914 exist at the Georgia State Archive.

Three Major Atlanta Dailies: The Atlanta Constitution, The Atlanta Journal and The Atlanta Georgian (Hearst's Tabloid Yellow Journalism). The most relevant issues center around April 28th to August 27th 1913.

5. Atlanta Constitution Newspaper: The Murder of Mary Phagan, Coroner's Inquest, Grand Jury, Investigation, Trial, Appeals, Prison Shanking and Lynching reported about the Leo Frank Case in the Atlanta Constitution Daily Newspaper from 1913 to 1915.

6. Atlanta Georgian newspaper covering the Leo Frank Case from late April though August, 1913.

7. Atlanta Journal Newspaper, April, 28, 1913, through till the end of August, 1913, pertaining to articles about the Leo Frank Case:

Leo Frank confirms he might have been in the bathroom at the time Monteen Stover said his office was empty (12:05 pm to 12:10 pm): See the Atlanta Constitution, Monday, March 9, 1914, Leo Frank Jailhouse Interview

U.S. Senator Tom Watson

8. Tom Watson's Jeffersonian Newspaper (1914, 1915, 1916 and 1917) and Watson's Magazine (1915). Tom Watson's best work on the Leo M. Frank case was published in August and September 1915. Watson's five major magazine works written serially on the Frank-Phagan affair, provide logical arguments confirming the guilt of Leo M. Frank with the superb reasoning of a seasoned criminal attorney. These five 1915 articles published over numerous months are absolutely required reading for anyone interested in the Leo M. Frank Case. Originals of these magazines are extremely difficult to find.

8.1. The Leo Frank Case By Tom Watson (January 1915) Watson's Magazine Volume 20 No. 3. See page 139 for the Leo Frank Case. Jeffersonian Publishing Company, Thomson, Ga., Digital Source

8.2. The Full Review of the Leo Frank Case By Tom Watson (March 1915) Volume 20. No. 5. See page 235 for 'A Full Review of the Leo Frank Case'. Jeffersonian Publishing Company, Thomson, Ga., Digital Source

8.3. The Celebrated Case of The State of Georgia vs. Leo Frank By Tom Watson (August 1915) Volumne 21, No 4. See page 182 for 'The Celebrated Case of the State of Georgia vs. Leo Frank". Jeffersonian Publishing Company, Thomson, Ga., Digital Source

8.4. The Official Record in the Case of Leo Frank, Jew Pervert By Tom Watson (September 1915) Volume 21. No. 5. See page 251 for 'The Official Record in the Case of Leo Frank, Jew Pervert'. Jeffersonian Publishing Company, Thomson, Ga., Digital Source

8.5. The Rich Jews Indict a State! The Whole South Traduced in the Matter of Leo Frank By Tom Watson (October 1915) Volume 21. No. 6. See page 301. Jeffersonian Publishing Company, Thomson, Ga., Digital Source:

Tom Watson's Jeffersonian Weekly Newspaper

9. The archive of Tom E. Watson Digital Papers, the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, contains the full collection of Jeffersonian Newspapers:

Modern Leo Frank cult members (known as Frankites) are posing as neutral reviewers and attempting to convince people not to read Tom Watson's analysis about the Frank-Phagan affair. Watson's analysis of the case is the controversial forbidden fruit of truth that have been censored for more than 100 years. For a nearly complete selection of: Tom Watson's Jeffersonian newspaper articles specifically related to the Murder of Mary Phagan and Leo Frank Case.

Tom Watson Brown, Grandson of Thomas Edward Watson

10. Notes on the Case of Leo M. Frank, By Tom W. Brown, Emery University, Atlanta, Georgia, 1982.

Leo Frank Georgia Supreme Court Archive:

11. Leo Frank Trial and Appeals Georgia Supreme Court File (1,800 pages).

Year 2010
Language English
Collection folkscanomy_fringe; folkscanomy; additional_collections
Notes This book is the best attempt of all the books on the subject at creating an even handed review of all the remaining documents on the trial and conviction of Leo Frank.


Reviewer: Bob Davis, Retired - favoritefavoritefavoritefavoritefavorite - October 10, 2013
Subject: Sad, impotent accusations are not proof of Frank's innocence.
The sad, outraged screeches of the word 'bigot' do not prove that this was a forgery. The blood rituals were observed by Frank and this case will stick in the craw of Khazars forever.
Reviewer: Macro Man - favoritefavoritefavoritefavoritefavorite - October 27, 2012
Subject: Justice for little Mary Anne Phagan in this Book
God Bless You 13 yr old little Mary Phagan. I hope you can finally rest in peace with the truth being known to everybody in the years exceeding 2013. Phagan deserves the right to sleep without all the misinformation about Frank being innocent. Please stop spreading blood-libel accusations that Frank was framed and lynched because of Antisemitism. Any 21st century jury would have convicted Frank based on the testimony and exhibits. Governor Slaton disqualified himself because his lawfirm represented Leo Frank.
Reviewer: manhattansunrise - favoritefavoritefavoritefavoritefavorite - October 14, 2012
Subject: Required Reading on Leo Frank and Mary Phagan
The beginning section of this book was a bit slow and difficult to get through. I almost put the book down for good, but glad I didn't because once into the meat and substance of the book, it was smooth sailing and well worth reading from cover to cover! There seems to be a lot of people writing hate reviews about the book on, but thankfully the owner of this out of print book made it available free online.

What is very interesting and seldom talked about is that Leo Frank made a statement to the court that essentially amounted to a murder confession. Leo Frank essentially admitted to murdering Mary Phagan at his trial when he mounted the witness stand and told the Jury he might have "unconsciously" gone to the bathroom in he metal room during the time Monteen Stover waited in his empty office from 12:05 to 12:10, April 26, 1913. He formerly told the police Mary Phagan was with him in his office during this exact time. The State of Georgia's prosecution built its case around the theory Leo Frank murdered Mary Phagan in the metal room between 12:05 p.m. and 12:10 p.m.

It was a shocking metal room admission coming from Leo Frank who denied knowing his employee Mary Phagan, but had been her boss for 1 year (spring of 1912 to 1913) and passed by her work station each day on his way to the bathroom in the metal room.

For the best interpretations of the August 18, 1913, Leo Frank murder trial confession, you can read the closing arguments of State prosecution lawyers Frank Arthur Hooper and Hugh M Dorsey in American State Trials Volume X 1918 by John D. Lawson LLD.

However, Tom Watson's post trial analysis of the Leo Frank murder trial confession is the most enjoyable to read in his August and September Watson's Magazine (1915). It drives Leo Frank partisans to a foaming at the mouth frenzy, and you can't help but enjoy their squirming, cheesy excuses and screeching with utter delight.

The journey Mary Phagan Kean went through to discover the facts and circumstances surrounding the case was very interesting and captivating to say the least. Having read the other books on this particular murder case, this book, I agree is probably the most even handed on the subject.

I highly recommend this book!

Be sure to read it and the other books listed above as well.

Oh My God! Were their really four Leo Frank admissions that amounted to murder confessions?

Spoiler Alert:

Within the 318 page official legal records of the Leo M. Frank 1913 trial brief of evidence is testimony and affidavits revealing Leo Frank confessed to murdering Mary Phagan three times, though he would deny all three.

In the Atlanta Constitution March 9, 1914, Leo Frank would make a fourth admission that amounted to a murder confession. This was two days after Judge Benjamin Hill resentenced Leo Frank to hang by the neck until dead, scheduled on his 30th birthday, April 17, 1914.

Leo Frank Admission Number Three that Amounted to a Murder Trial Confession: August 18, 1913, Fulton County Superior Courthouse During the Leo Frank Trial

The third Leo Frank murder confession occurred on August 18, 1913, when Leo Frank mounted the witness stand at his trial (July 28 to August 26) to make a 4 hour unsworn statement. He told the packed courtroom, Judge and Jury - in response to Monteen Stover testifying that his office had been empty on April 26, 1913, from 12:05pm to 12:10pm - Leo Frank stated he might have "unconsciously" gone to the bathroom in the metal room. It was the spine chilling crescendo of the trial, because Leo Frank had stated to the Atlanta police on Monday, April 28, 1913, Mary Phagan had arrived in his office between 12:05pm and 12:10pm, Maybe 12:07pm on Confederate Memorial Day, Saturday, April 26, 1913 (State's Exhibit B).

It was a slam dunk for the State's prosecution, because Solicitor General Hugh M. Dorsey and his legal team had spent 29 days during the trial trying to prove to the Jury that Leo Frank murdered Mary Phagan in the second floor metal room between 12:05pm and 12:10om, on April 26, 1913.

Leo Frank's Alleged Murder Confession Number One: April 26, 1913, Noon Hour

Leo Frank's alleged murder confession number one was made to Jim Conley, when Leo Frank told him he had tried to have sex with Mary Phagan and she refused him, and as a result of rejecting him, he assaulted her.

Mary Phagan's bloody hair was discovered on Monday, April 28, 1913, at 6:35 A.M. tangled on the handle of a bench lathe in the second floor metal room by Robert P. Barret, along with a 5 inch wide blood stain on the floor in front of the girls dressing room. (Leo Frank Brief of Evidence, 1913)

Leo Frank Murder Confession Number Two: April 26, 1913 at 68 East Georgia Avenue, the Selig Residece

Leo Frank confessed murdering Mary Phagan to his wife Lucille Selig Frank on the evening of April 26, 1913 at 10:30 P.M. Leo Frank said he didn't know why he would murder and asked his wife for his pistol so he could shoot himself. Lucille told her family and cook Minola McKnight about what happened. (State's Exhibit J, June 3rd, 1913)

On April 23, 1957, when Lucille Selig Frank died of Heart Failure (broken heart), her last will and testament notarized and registered with the local Government of Atlanta in 1954, requested that she be cremated (Last Will and Testament of Lucille S. Frank, 1954). Sadly, the grave plot to the immediate left of Leo M. Frank in the Mount Carmel Cemetery, was reserved for Lucille Selig Frank, and to this day it remains empty. Not even Lucille's ashes are disbursed their, instead they were buried in the Oakland cemetery in Atlanta between her parent's head stones.

Those are the three Leo Frank murder confessions within the official record, but there is one more.

Leo Frank Murder Confession Number Four Went Public: March 9, 1914, Atlanta Constitution

Leo Frank gave a jailhouse interview to an Atlanta Constitution journalist and it was published on March 9, 1914. Leo Frank's statements published in the Atlanta Constitution confirmed and supported his August 18, 1913, trial statement admission, that amounted to a murder trial confession.

CASE CLOSED! or is it?

Could there perhaps have been connivance?
Reviewer: wostraub - - September 19, 2012
Subject: "Confessions"? Oh, Please!
I'm not rating this book because I haven't read it yet. But I did want to comment on Frank's so-called murder confessions.

Let's say that I state under oath that Joe Blow told me he killed his wife.

In the view of most of the book's reviewers, this would constitute a "confession." If I repeat the same story four times, then that would amount to four "confessions," according to these same reviewers.

These are not confessions, but hearsay. They may be true and they may not be true.

Leo Frank got a raw deal. He may indeed have been guilty, but he never confessed to the murder.
Reviewer: Pleonic - favorite - June 1, 2012
Subject: A slanted bunch of hooey
Reviewer: threnos - favorite - May 31, 2012
Subject: Give Mary Phagan Some Respect!
Does Mary Phagan Kean believe that Mary Phagan was an idiot? Would Mary Phagan have walked a fair distance with a man she was terrified of to a room that she would have known could be locked? Why didn't she wait for him in his office or by the staircase while he supposedly checked for the metal? Why would Mary have waited for him at all? Why would she have gone to see him alone if she had just been with George Epps? Why didn't he go along with her or her mother or a friend? As a girl, I find this kind of insulting. If I was scared of a guy who'd been making advances towards me I would not meet him alone or go anywhere with him alone. I know this from experience from a time when I was only about 8 years old!

Mary Phagan seemed like a very intelligent little girl. Those who believe in Leo Frank's innocence give her far more credit than those who believe in his guilt, including her own grand niece!

I'm tired of reading all these articles about Leo's "confession" and guilt. They completely ignore common sense and the evidence and seek to glorify bigots! Get over it already!

The main testimony against Frank was from the person who really murdered Mary, Jim Conley. I don't buy that Monteen Stover was the star witness. In my opinon she screwed herself by saying she looked at the clock and got their at 12:05. By claiming this she couldn't change her time line. By the Trolley witnesses testimony it was impossible that Phagan could have arrived at the factory before this. She arrived after when Stover had already left.

Yet once again it was only Conley's word that stated that Stover got their afterwards. Conley who supposedly still didn't know Mary Phagan's name months after the crime and plenty of oppotunity to have learned it. Conley who claims that Frank didn't give the signal to lock the doors until after Stover had left. It wouldn't fit with the testimony if he had locked them before would it now? It would pit Stover's claim against Conley damaging Dorsey's case. How would Stover have gotten in then to give her damaging account about Frank's supposed absense? And for that matter why wouldn't Frank have run into Stover on his way to give the signal if he had just attacked Mary? He wouldn't have heard Stover entering since she was wearing those infamous tennis shoes which are silent. Why wouldn't Frank have given the signal the moment Mary stepped into his office? It makes no sense! When a statement raises more questions then it answers them you are in trouble.

And why did Conely claim he fell asleep after Stover had left? That's very weird! The man's story was more convoluted and changing than a daytime soap opera.

The trial and subsequent lynching of Leo Frank was a travesty. It made a mockery of law and humanity. Trying to prove Frank was guilty with illogical reasoning, prejudice and mistakes won't make it any more "just" nor will it change the fact that the guilty man got away. But not forever. You can't escape justice, God's justice, forever. I'm sure that is something that everyone involved in the case who lied found out soon enough.
Reviewer: richard21852 - favorite - April 16, 2012
Subject: Mary Phagan's sister-in-law believed Leo Frank was innocent!
As one who read Mary Phagan Kean's awful tome which purported to prove Leo Frank murdered her distant relative in 1913, what she conveniently omits from it is that her grandmother--Mary Richards Phagan of Atlanta, GA--the murder victim's sister-in-law, was interviewed by the Nashville Tennessean on December 16, 1983 (picked up by the Associated Press and widely published the next day) and also by the Marietta Daily Journal, published December 23, 1983, said she strongly believed since 1913 that Leo Frank WAS INNOCENT based upon her reading of Jim Conley's trial testimony in the Atlanta newspapers during Frank's trial.

Mary Richards Phagan also told the Tennessean and the AP that she would "thank the Lord" if Frank were pardoned. When the pardon was denied to Leo Frank, she roundly denounced the Georgia parole board in another Associated Press interview, saying: "I am surprised. What's the matter with those people? There must still be a lot of people around who are so cruel."

The members of the Georgia Board of Pardons and Paroles were unaware of this, because neither the Atlanta Constitution nor the Atlanta Journal ever picked up this story; sadly, Steve Oney never mentioned it in his magnificent history of the Leo Frank case.

This is NO HOAX, I assure you; just go online to and you can access the article MARY PHAGAN: FRANK WAS INNOCENT, December 23, 1983, p. 6-A for a small fee.
Reviewer: mecormany - favorite - March 17, 2012
Subject: Leo Frank was innocent
But as some reviewers here say, bigots will believe what they will believe. Such as the three confessions -- 1. Yeah, Conley is a reliable source for sure. Being the guy who really did it. 2. Frank never confessed to his wife. The police coerced their African American cook (by holding her incognito for 28 hours) to say she heard his wife tell her mother that he'd confessed to her -- but the cook recanted that as soon as she got away from the police and never was called at the trial. 3. He never confessed jacks*** in court. Frank-haters believe the murder took place in the machine area by the washroom just down the hall from Frank's office like the prosecution claimed, although it came out later they botched that too and it actually took place on the floor below. But when Frank said he may have gone to the washroom in that area when Stover claimed to come to his office and he wasn't there ( Quinn confirmed Frank was there the entire time the murder could have taken place so she probably lied to be a local heroine or the cops suggested she do so)-- aha, the smoking gun. Except of course it wasn't. Just more hate BS.
To believe Frank was guilty is to ignore every real fact that ultimately emerged - the recantations, the wooden panels with bloody fingerprints from the door leading to the alley that somehow got "lost", like the ''experts''who maintained hair found in the metal area was Phagan's without even analyzing it, that drops of blood were hers without even analyzing it, the fact that Conley admitted he defecated into the elevator shaft but it wasn't mashed until a day later when the police took the elevator down to the basement although he said that's what he used to get the body to the basement the day of the murder and on and on and on. Including the judge who wrote Slaton and asked him to do what the judge should have done. There was not a single shred of evidence that Frank committed the murder, but plenty that Conley did. Watson was a despicable opportunist who cared about Watson and nothing else.
Or perhaps I'm just a traitor to my gentile heritage.
Leo Frank may not be the saint he's made out to be in the movies and the doc's or even a few of the books, and I am no fan of industrialists then or now who exploit the poor to make a fortune, but he did not kill Mary Phagan. By now, anybody with even a shred of open mindedness should know that and take this book for what its worth -- a distant relative looking for her 15 minutes and some coin.
Reviewer: L-H - favoritefavoritefavoritefavoritefavorite - August 8, 2011
Subject: A relatives few of the murder case
This book written by a relative of the poor murder victim Mary Phagan gives details of the oral history of the murder case given by her family and people who knew Mary Phagan and the rapist Leo Frank in person.
Very interesting are the chapters 11 and 12 which describe why the Phagan family broke their silence and how jewish organisations tried to re-write the history of the murder case long time after Leo Frank had died.
Reviewer: Super YiaYia - - August 8, 2011
Subject: A Miscarriage of Justice? I should Say so!
Some of the comments below, said, yes, Leo Frank killed Mary Phagan. His trial was a mockery. Mr. Frank was guilty before the trial started.

It seemed the investigation stopped with Conley???

Alonzo Mann Confession
Alonzo Mann worked in the factory as an office boy.

Almost 70 years later Mann went to the police in 1982 and stated that he (Mann), saw Conley alone in the factory carrying the girls body.

But! Conley's testimony was that Leo Frank had paid him to move the girl's body.

Alonzo Mann then swore in an affidavit that Jim Conley said he would kill him if he told anyone. When Mann told his parents, they told Mann to promise to never tell anyone ever.

When Mr. Mann was ready to tell his secret, a lie detector test was done at the same time. Mann passed the test. His reason for coming to the police, now?? Mr. Mann wanted to die guilt free.

The evidence box was gone, and it was important because they wanted to run some tests. There were bites on the girl's body, and the idea was to compare the teeth marks to Conley's dental records.

The above was not enough to pardon Leo Frank, yet.

I truly believe that Leo Frank was innocent. I have done some research and it just does not fit.

Note: there were no charges laid regarding the lynching mob. If my memory serves, one of them became governor of the state.


Just Saying.......
Reviewer: ogden100 - favorite - April 26, 2011
Subject: Truth has no meaning to bigots
Sheesh - there was no "confession", that's a fabrication of Tom Watson in his anti-semitic "Jew Pervert" article. (Who would have guessed that with a title like that he --- and his champions - are anti-semitic?)
Reviewer: ogden1000 - favorite - April 25, 2011
Subject: I guess I'm PC then, because I disagree
The previous review has nothing to offer but bigotry, like his hero, Tom Watson. He calls anyone who disagrees with him "PC", as if that term means anything these days. Worse than that, much worse than that, he continues to make generalities that are plainly anti-semitic. For example, it's not just the Jewish community that's virtually unanimous in its belief that Leo Frank was an innocent victim of prejudice - it's the majority of historians who have looked at this horrible incident. You know what you're dealing with when someone consistently tries to attribute a common belief and conspiritorial accusations on a group of people, as if they are all conspired to a devious deed: the notorious "they". These bigots have learned nothing in 100 years.
Reviewer: Haphaestus - favoritefavoritefavoritefavoritefavorite - April 25, 2011
Subject: Who better to tell the story than a family member?
A touching and moving portrayal written by the great-niece who bears the same name as the original victim. Her quest for the truth about what happened back in the early 1900's runs up against the dark, self-serving forces of political correctness that dominate our media and political classes today. Five stars for a serious amount of modern-day Sherlock Holmes-style sleuthing.

Some victims are just more "PC" than others, it appears.
Reviewer: holysmoke - favorite - April 24, 2011
Subject: Strange how bigotry never dies
Tom Watson was a bigot - just Google his writings on Catholics, the KKK, Jews, blacks, you name it. Yet the guys (guy - singular, probably) who post these "reviews" want you to ignore how bigoted he was, how he inflamed the public at the time with blatently anti-semitic writings in his publication the Jeffersonian, ow he bullied the jurors (threatened them if they didn't vote to convict), hid evidence, made up other evidence, and incited Frank's lynching. How can you take this man's word for anything?
Reviewer: clowns789 - favoritefavoritefavoritefavoritefavorite - April 22, 2011
Subject: Great summary of murder from grandniece herself
The grandniece of Mary Phagan by the same name wrote about her views of the case over a score ago and detailed both the case and the personal side of the story. She recalls being made fun of as a child for having the same name and being asked the ubiquitous question, "Are you by any chance related to Mary Phagan?" She later details both the prosecution and defense's arguments in Chs. 4 and 5, respectively, and goes on to talk about the lynching and implications of the case. It is a great read for learning about The American Dreyfus Case, the impetus for the rebirth of the Ku Klux Klan, the formation of the Anti-Defamation League, and the first time a white man in Georgia was convicted of murder on the testimony of a black man.
Reviewer: anderson100 - favorite - April 19, 2011
Subject: What IS this fixation with this Tom Watson bigot?
Yeah, Watson is very objective, with titles like "Rich Jews Indict a State" and "The Jew Pervert Frank". Why is this guy saturating this site with biased material about something that occurred 100 years ago? Why does he portray Tom Watson as a valid and objective analyst, when it was this KKK-supporting bigot that incited the lynching of Frank? And why do his posting include various levels of anti-semitic statements themselves (you know, portraying all them there Rich Jews as a singular, evil entity who have all banded together for the sole purpose of reforming Leo Franks' name). It's not anti-semitic to claim Frank was guilty. It is anti-semitic to constantly make generalizations about Jews as a singular entity who only distort truth and to whitewash the purely bigoted writings of an individual, Tom Watson
Reviewer: hicks104 - favorite - April 17, 2011
Subject: Please check out the biased source
Tom Watson was not an objective analyst. He was a bigot, a KKK supporter, anti-Catholic, and anti-semitic. Read some of his other writings on these subjects, but take some anti-nausea medicine first. He called for and celebrated the lynching of Leo Frank. The NY Times at the time said he was responsible for the lynching. I have no idea why the guy who posted this is all over this site on a crusade to champion Tom Watson, but the guy was a simply a bigot.
Reviewer: Apiru-inhibitor - favoritefavoritefavoritefavorite - March 19, 2011
Subject: The murder of Mary Phagan
I think the long work is well written regarding Mary Phagan and her murder. Now, we just need more people rising up and going after the rapists.
Reviewer: sarahcohen - favoritefavoritefavoritefavoritefavorite - September 7, 2010
Subject: a generic good read
some portions read sentimental, but a good generic read all-in-all. in brief the work is a satisfactory synopsis of the leo m. frank case. one can not fathom why mrs. kean who believes unequivocally in leo m. frank's guilt felt compelled to feign doubt and write a "mostly" neutral account. there were a few errors in the book, but for the most part the facts were solid. the thought process in evaluating the evidence was logical and reasonable. anyone who studies the case carefully knows there is no question or doubt leo m. frank was guilty of the crime. why the jewish community feels compelled to claim he was an innocent man who did not commit the crime, a victim of antisemitism is incomprehensible and puts in dispute real acts of antisemitism. i am convinced the grand and petite jury made the correct decision deciding leo m. frank guilty and the supreme courts upholding the conviction was right and just.
Reviewer: Zeugitai - favoritefavoritefavoritefavorite - February 20, 2010
Subject: Nineteenth Century?!
Why are people writing that this occurred in the nineteenth century? The whole thing transpired between 1913 and 1915--the twentieth century. People make me feel like I'm "loosing" my mind!
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